Sa'di is the theoretician of friendship——“mojaverat” (مجاورت)——and kelileh-o demneh is the theoretician of “sherarat” (شرارت, villainy, felony) saying that the closeness of different subjects is catastrophic. Sa'di is writing golestan and bustan at the time of the Mongols threat——it is the news of the Mongols coming and we know about the velocities of news can penetrate within the thick walls of any city. Sa'di is theorizing proximity based on “mohabat” (محبت), he assembles a setting of ‘garden’ for the coming of Mongols army. kelileh-o demneh’s project is pessimist pragmatism, mobilizing ethics in a milieu of violence and power.

friendship, garden, Kelileh Demneh, Sa'di, wall, war,

literate and obliterate